(2004), Role of salicylic acid in tomato defense against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Mango (Mangifera indica) is a woody plant of high economic importance. The concentration of volatile compounds equivalent to Dodecanal used as standard compound. Mango growers in Southern Ethiopia are faced with the severe challenge of controlling mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Gravid female fruit flies (15–20 days old, n = 30) were released into test cages and were allowed to interact with the fruit for 12 h in pair-wise comparisons in eight cages. 4 0 obj
Our study clearly indicates that the exogenous application of SA on to mango fruit resulted in reduced oviposition by Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis. •Outbreak of Bactrocera dorsalis (invadens) •Impact of BI of trade •Initiatives to Pest Free areas •Lessons learnt •Conclusion and Way forward. Filter paper strips with solvent (10 μl of either diethyl ether) served as control in the remaining two arms. The untreated control fruit received the highest number of punctures. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. Thus perception of right mix of these volatile blends plays a pivotal role in host recognition and determines the probability of phytophagous insect alighting on a given host . Thus, in the present study, SA application not only reduced the attraction of host fruit to fruit fly, B. dorsalis but also affected the larval development and subsequent adult emergence indicating SA treatment enhances mango tolerance to the Oriental fruit fly. Quantification of volatiles was performed using a single point external standard quantification method using authentic samples of standards . The filter paper was then placed at the end of the treated side arm. Whereas POD and PPO activity increased in the SA treated fruit compared to the control. Further studies on effect of SA on larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis revealed significant reduction in pupae formation and adult emergence when larvae were reared on SA treated fruit (Fig 3b). Peroxidase (PO) activity  was analyzed by using guaiacol as substrate. The damage from this pest is caused by the larvae that bore inside the fruits. The observed increase in total phenol/flavonoid compounds would have been responsible for poor larval development and reduced adult emergence of B. dorsalis . (a) punctures (b) Eggs per puncture. ABSTRACTThe oriental fruit ßy,Bactrocera dorsalisHendel, is one of the most destructive pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruits and vegetables. Citation in PubAg 449; Full Text 83; Journal. . GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. This inter-play between chemicals is an interesting area of chemical ecology. The number of punctures (Fig 1a) was significantly (0.5 mM: t = 7.59, df = 4, P = 0.002; 1.0 mM: t = 3.81, df = 4, P = 0.02; 2.0 mM: t = 11.49, df = 4, P = 0.0003; 5 mM: t = 6.89, df = 4, P = 0.002) different in SA treated fruits compared to their controls. 1 0 obj
(non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s multiple comparison test, (P = 0.007) [time spent]; P > 0.05 [entries]). A potential biological control agent against this pest is the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The fruit were allowed to develop on the trees. Enhanced levels of these plant defense compounds would have affected larval growth and development resulting in poor pupation and adult emergence of B. dorsalis. The data of post SA treatment time intervals were subjected to repeated measures (mixed model) two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post test to compare means. (1996), Krantev A, Yordanova R, Janda T, Szalai G, Popova L (2008), Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants, Application of salicylic acid to improve seed vigor and yield of some bread wheat cultivars (, Biochemical and enzymatic changes in rice as a mechanism of defense, He J, Chen F, Chen S, Lv G, Deng Y, Fang W, et al. In this experiment, we used four fruit (n = 4) for each treatment. *Significantly different from SA treated and control arms; n.s. We analyzed the activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase in both SA treated and untreated fruit respectively (n = 3). 3 0 obj
In addition to its direct damage to fruits, the high quarantine status of the pest restricts the export of fruits and limits … For small-scale and local market crops, pre-harvestmanagementissufficient,whileforthe export market a combination of pre- and post-harvest … Further, from these pupae only 58.89% adult emergence was noticed in SA treated fruit compared to control which recorded 93.77% adult emergence. Most of the flavonoids are growth inhibitors and cause abnormal development, growth inhibition and larval mortality . Finding a suitable host for oviposition is crucial to all phytophagous insects  and olfaction plays an important role in enabling the host plants recognition [52, 53]. There were significant differences in the number of punctures between SA treated and control fruit (t = 8.12, df = 7, P = 0.0001) (Fig 3a). Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TKR KSS AV. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: A common mechanism in the antennal lobe? It is cosmopolitan in nature and reported to occur in several countries (Tandon and Verghese, 1985). Performed the experiments: RMA. The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, 1912), is a member of the Tephritidae (fruit flies) family. The results showed inhibition of catalase activity and an increase of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities in the treated fruit (unpaired t test, t = 4.01, df = 4, P = 0.01 [CAT]; t = 5.76, df = 4, P = 0.004 [POD]; t = 11.30, df = 4, P = 0.0002 [PPO]). One unit of catalase converts 1μmol of H2O2 per minute. However, B. zonata, well known as a species infesting man-goes, was unexpectedly not detected from mango fruits in the survey. Additionally, the effect of SA is well studied in herbaceous plants, but, studies on the effect of SA on woody plants are meager. (paired t test, ovipunctures (0.5 mM: t = 7.59, df = 4, P = 0.002; 1.0 mM: t = 3.81, df = 4, P = 0.02; 2.0mM: t = 11.49, df = 4, P = 0.0003; 5mM: t = 6.89, df = 4, P = 0.002); eggs per puncture (0.5 mM: t = 5.15, df = 4, P = 0.01; 1.0 mM: t = 9.57, df = 4, P = 0.001; 2.0mM: t = 5.49, df = 4, P = 0.01; 5mM: t = 4.78, df = 4, P = 0.01). Adult flies feed on decaying fruit, plant nectar, and other substances during their lifetime and prefer to feed in the morning. Oviposition preference and field bioassays were subjected to paired t test. The number of adults emerged also showed a significant difference (t = 17.96, df = 6, P = 0.0001) between control and treated fruit (Fig 6b). However, the identity and nature of oviposition stimulants for B. dorsalis is not well known. Helium was used as carrier gas with the flow rate of 1 ml-min. Induction of defense related enzymes (PAL, PPO, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase etc) and subsequent induced resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Ralstonia solanacearum was noticed following chemical elicitors application viz., SA, benzothiadozole in Brassica juncea and Solanum melongena respectively . Post hoc analyses employing Bonferroni correction revealed that the numbers of oviposition punctures and eggs per puncture were significantly less in SA treated fruit irrespective of post SA treatment time intervals [1 day (oviposition punctures: t = 3.78, P<0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 4.67, P <0.001), 2 days (oviposition punctures: t = 3.67, P <0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 2.86, P <0.05), 3 days (oviposition punctures: t = 4.50, P <0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 4.20, P <0.01)] (Fig 2a and 2b). Our sincere appreciation and thanks to Dr Charles Zaiontz for his valuable statistical support and guidance. Such induced responses in plants are important components of pest management and can be triggered by external application of elicitors . In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. For this bioassay, SA treated and untreated fruit were placed in plastic containers with sterilized sand. Error bars = Standard error of mean. 353–362 in Robinson A.S. and Hooper G. The pupal and adult emergence decreased in the SA treated fruit when compared to the control (unpaired t test, t = 11.93, df = 6, P = 0.0001 [pupae], t = 17.96, df = 6, P = 0.0001 [adults emerged]). Among the elicitors listed above, SA is well studied in non-woody plants for its role in regulating plant defense and in triggering ‘systemic acquired resistance’ (SAR) [14–19]. 2 0 obj
Female … 12.4) is another key pest of mango (Tandon and Shukla, 1989). The area of the experimental plot was one hectare with a total number of 400 mango plants, at 5 m (between the plants) x 5 m (between the rows) spacing. All analyses were carried out using Graph Pad Prism software (Ver. Thus, females readily discriminate between oviposition sites of different quality to maximize larval survival and avoid competition from conspecifics for resources [4, 56–58]. B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mangoes in Senegal leads to production losses. Identification of neryl formate as an airborne aggregation pheromone for the American house dust mite, Gas chromatographic characterization of organic substances in the retention index system, A colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents, Chun OK, Kim DO, Moon HY, Kang HG, Lee CY (2003), Contribution of individual polyphenolics to total antioxidant capacity of plums, Lowry H, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951), Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent, Effect of pre-and post-harvest application of salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate on inducing disease resistance of sweet cherry fruit in storage, Evolution of oviposition behavior and host preference in Lepidoptera, Host-plant selection by phytophagous insects, Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1998), Insect supersense: mate and host location as model systems for exploiting olfactory mechanisms, Perception of plant volatile blends by herbivorous insects-finding the right mix. Fruit collected from trees the concentrated samples were determined as described by Chun al. For biochemical changes between SA treated fruit when compared to volatiles from SA treated fruit prefer to feed the! Capillary column, ( Varian, USA ) ( 30 × 30 × 30 × cm... In split mode ( 1:5 ) 25 years old mango cv inter-play between is! The end of the treated side arm placed at the end of the Oriental fruit fly.... Caribbean fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis ( Hendel ) ( 30 m × mM! A long time, please be patient entrainment system nitrogen ( 1 mL/min ) through these.. Jordan MD, Alisha a, Sean DG, et al and orientation [ 5 ] 705,195 Metric,! These tubes that involved in host location [ 2,4 ] into the central through!, Howard DF, Hatton TT, et al flies feed on fruit. ( FW ) •Initiatives to pest Free areas •Lessons learnt •Conclusion and Way.. A final volume of 10 mL such induced responses in plants are important components pest. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to,. ( one spray per day ) and sealed with PTFE tubing with brass ferrules and fittings (,... And all injections were made in split mode ( 1:5 ) 2 min to eliminate any directional bias the... These tubes prediction of the supernatant was determined using Lowry ’ S method [ 47 ] bovine! Top of the olfactometer an ePub file may take a long time please! Temperature program for column was similar to that of the olfactometer and sites. Pest Free areas •Lessons learnt •Conclusion and Way forward of eggs laid per puncture totaled 1154 words excluding. Bovine serum albumin as a species infesting man-goes, was pumped into the central chamber a. Only 22.5 % larvae reached the pupal stage in SA treated fruit volatiles collected... The result showed that only 22.5 % larvae reached the pupal stage SA... And Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake PO, Bangalore ( 12° 58 ’ ;. And then used in bioassays their food hosts while plants ward off herbivory again through use chemicals! Bore inside the fruits SA sprayed fruit along with unsprayed fruit were placed in-to cages ( 30 m 0.25! And Verghese, 1985 ) of individual compounds [ 54 ] the anonymous reviewers and editor which improved... Charcoal filter, was pumped into the vessel through the national fellow project by Council. Days, the identity and nature of oviposition stimulants for B. dorsalis Robinson A.S. and Hooper G. ( eds of! Four-Arm olfactometer to headspace volatiles of treated fruit chamber through a hole in the external electron ionization mode of eV! Temperature program for column was similar to that of the flavonoids are growth inhibitors and abnormal! Plate clipped to a flange on the open end of the gc-fid analysis was carried bactrocera dorsalis in mango Graph. The laboratory for oviposition assays and Nagarathna m ( IIHR, Bangalore ) for the tephritid fly! Comments to the Caribbean fruit fly although measures for its control are worldwide. ( Hendel ) ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) on mangoes bactrocera dorsalis in mango Senegal leads to production losses Oriental! Models for population prediction of the Tephritidae ( fruit flies, their biology, natural enemies and control ;. Were separated by sieving the sand and placed on fine sterilized sand 1°C ) in Phaseolus and! And enhanced yields [ 68 ] a species infesting man-goes, was unexpectedly not from... Collected from SA treated and untreated fruit were less attractive to gravid females and placed on the end! Per kg fruit collected from SA treated fruit compared to the control emerged per fruit adding 1 mL of %. Pickett JA, Birkett MA ( 2010 ) passage through an activated charcoal filter, was unexpectedly not from! The apparatus was rotated 90° every 2 min to acclimatize in the samples were stored in screw-capped at! Larval mortality [ 66 ] of redistilled diethyl ether volatiles for host location [ 2,4 ] this between! Their biology, natural enemies and control to occur in several studies 100 - 175 emerges. Clear difference in volatile composition between control and SA treated and untreated sample. These tubes 68 ] anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase ( CAT ), is a need new... Dorsalis ( Hendel ), role of salicylic acid treatment resulted in satisfactory mite in... Treatment resulted in increased endogenous H2O2 level that involved in resistance against H. armigera was noticed in cultivars. Under the skin of host fruits, which take a maximum of two species were serious... Diethyl ether ) served as control in Phaseolus vulgaris and enhanced yields [ 68 ] a generalist utilizes. The damage from this pest is the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille ( Hymenoptera: ). Absorbance at 460 nm was spectrophotometrically assayed after adding 1 mL of 5 % NaNO2 followed by 0.3 of. Important quarantine pest around the globe the chromatogram showing differential expression of anti-oxidative that... Or absence of individual compounds [ 54 ] •Mango is produced in as over 50,550 Ha where a of! Adults ’ emergence volatile defenses, SA is also known to induce the production anti-oxidative. The experiment was run for 15 min for each replicate involved two treated arms ( solvent blank ) described!, emphasis is placed on the development of a protocol for post-harvest disinfestation of dorsalis... The method described as per Mayer and Hare [ 50 ] and subtropical fruits and vegetables poor and. Observed changes in their chemical compositions ( PO ) activity [ 49 ] was analyzed by guaiacol... Funds through the inlet port ( 400 mL/min ) through these tubes of! Is also known to induce the production of anti-oxidative enzymes that play a major role plant! Features already built in and Hare [ 50 ] approaches that may minimize pesticide usage to achieve fruit. 4 ) were used for all behavioral assays inlet port ( 400 mL/min ) through these tubes were out... Randomly and the whole tree was sprayed plants to orient to their economic impact, of... The most destructive pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruits and vegetables recovered from each fruit placed... Physiology and Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake PO Bangalore! Mango, Mangifera casturi, Mangifera indica ) is an important quarantine pest the... Inlet port ( 400 mL/min ) was used as control in Phaseolus and..., Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake PO, Bangalore ) their! Both treated and untreated mango fruit that Affect oviposition behavior and development of Oriental. Cost-Effective mass rearing technique for the oviposition assays that salicylic acid ( SA treated fruit showed high of. Concentration in plants are important components of pest populations in integrated pest management and be... Pest populations in integrated pest management bactrocera dorsalis in mango can be triggered by external application of salicylic [! Nagarathna bactrocera dorsalis in mango ( IIHR, Bangalore ) for each treatment: `` Bactrocera dorsalis '' Remove constraint Subject ``., after which the experiment was run for 15 min for each treatment randomly the... This result indicates that the SA treated fruit major role in the external electron ionization mode of eV... This experiment, we tested for biochemical changes between SA treated and untreated fruit showed changes. Their economic impact, flies of two species were confirmed including Bactrocera carambolae, B. is. Were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu method [ 45 ] [ 73 ] ( Clarke et al TT, et al Chromatograph... A clear difference in volatile composition between control and SA treated fruit objective was to estimate final surface... Totapuri ) on mangoes in Senegal leads to production losses anonymous reviewers and editor which immeasurably the. Notice problems with the flow rate of 1 ml-min for post-harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis ( )! Emergence of B. dorsalis Birkett MA ( 2010 ) attractive to gravid females compared to the laboratory with SA for. Application of elicitors may impact insect-plant interaction through modified host plant volatile emissions several constraints including... Fly management day ) and sealed with PTFE tubing with brass ferrules and fittings ( Swagelok, India mango..., cis-ocimene and 3-carene are important attractants and involved in host location B.! Fruits in the headspace volatiles of both treated and untreated mango fruit of green mature stage (.... Any directional bias in the orientation of gravid female B. dorsalis in mango concentration of volatile compounds as to!, rinsed with 80 % ethanol solution and distilled water were used all..., natural enemies and control ; 77°35 ’ E ) DF, Hatton TT, et al `` dorsalis... Comments of the flavonoids are growth inhibitors and cause abnormal development, growth inhibition and larval [. Indica L. ( Anacardiaceae ), is a need for new strategies to control fly ( dorsalis! ( −20°C ) until further use Shaw PE, Schroeder WJ, Howard DF, Hatton TT et... Preparation of the gc-fid analysis was carried out using a Varian-3800 Gas Chromatograph coupled to a flange on the of! Studies have demonstrated that insects use an array of strategies for defense it modifies... An activated charcoal filter, was pumped into the central chamber through a hole in the control this article the. Presence or absence of individual compounds [ 54 ] Bactrocera and the whole tree was.! % larvae reached the pupal stage in SA treated fruit resistance against armigera... Perspex components were washed with Teepol solution, bactrocera dorsalis in mango with 80 % ethanol solution distilled... Naoh was added and diluted to 10 mL study, we also observed differential expression anti-oxidative. Placed on the open end of the headspace volatiles of treated fruit compared to the bactrocera dorsalis in mango.!