(2004), Role of salicylic acid in tomato defense against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Mango (Mangifera indica) is a woody plant of high economic importance. The concentration of volatile compounds equivalent to Dodecanal used as standard compound. Mango growers in Southern Ethiopia are faced with the severe challenge of controlling mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Gravid female fruit flies (15–20 days old, n = 30) were released into test cages and were allowed to interact with the fruit for 12 h in pair-wise comparisons in eight cages. 4 0 obj Our study clearly indicates that the exogenous application of SA on to mango fruit resulted in reduced oviposition by Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis. •Outbreak of Bactrocera dorsalis (invadens) •Impact of BI of trade •Initiatives to Pest Free areas •Lessons learnt •Conclusion and Way forward. Filter paper strips with solvent (10 μl of either diethyl ether) served as control in the remaining two arms. The untreated control fruit received the highest number of punctures. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. Thus perception of right mix of these volatile blends plays a pivotal role in host recognition and determines the probability of phytophagous insect alighting on a given host [54]. Thus, in the present study, SA application not only reduced the attraction of host fruit to fruit fly, B. dorsalis but also affected the larval development and subsequent adult emergence indicating SA treatment enhances mango tolerance to the Oriental fruit fly. Quantification of volatiles was performed using a single point external standard quantification method using authentic samples of standards [43]. The filter paper was then placed at the end of the treated side arm. Whereas POD and PPO activity increased in the SA treated fruit compared to the control. Further studies on effect of SA on larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis revealed significant reduction in pupae formation and adult emergence when larvae were reared on SA treated fruit (Fig 3b). Peroxidase (PO) activity [49] was analyzed by using guaiacol as substrate. The damage from this pest is caused by the larvae that bore inside the fruits. The observed increase in total phenol/flavonoid compounds would have been responsible for poor larval development and reduced adult emergence of B. dorsalis [66]. (a) punctures (b) Eggs per puncture. ABSTRACTThe oriental fruit ßy,Bactrocera dorsalisHendel, is one of the most destructive pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruits and vegetables. Citation in PubAg 449; Full Text 83; Journal. [42]. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. This inter-play between chemicals is an interesting area of chemical ecology. The number of punctures (Fig 1a) was significantly (0.5 mM: t = 7.59, df = 4, P = 0.002; 1.0 mM: t = 3.81, df = 4, P = 0.02; 2.0 mM: t = 11.49, df = 4, P = 0.0003; 5 mM: t = 6.89, df = 4, P = 0.002) different in SA treated fruits compared to their controls. 1 0 obj (non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s multiple comparison test, (P = 0.007) [time spent]; P > 0.05 [entries]). A potential biological control agent against this pest is the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The fruit were allowed to develop on the trees. Enhanced levels of these plant defense compounds would have affected larval growth and development resulting in poor pupation and adult emergence of B. dorsalis. The data of post SA treatment time intervals were subjected to repeated measures (mixed model) two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post test to compare means. (1996), Krantev A, Yordanova R, Janda T, Szalai G, Popova L (2008), Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants, Application of salicylic acid to improve seed vigor and yield of some bread wheat cultivars (, Biochemical and enzymatic changes in rice as a mechanism of defense, He J, Chen F, Chen S, Lv G, Deng Y, Fang W, et al. In this experiment, we used four fruit (n = 4) for each treatment. *Significantly different from SA treated and control arms; n.s. We analyzed the activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase in both SA treated and untreated fruit respectively (n = 3). 3 0 obj In addition to its direct damage to fruits, the high quarantine status of the pest restricts the export of fruits and limits … For small-scale and local market crops, pre-harvestmanagementissufficient,whileforthe export market a combination of pre- and post-harvest … Further, from these pupae only 58.89% adult emergence was noticed in SA treated fruit compared to control which recorded 93.77% adult emergence. Most of the flavonoids are growth inhibitors and cause abnormal development, growth inhibition and larval mortality [66]. Finding a suitable host for oviposition is crucial to all phytophagous insects [51] and olfaction plays an important role in enabling the host plants recognition [52, 53]. There were significant differences in the number of punctures between SA treated and control fruit (t = 8.12, df = 7, P = 0.0001) (Fig 3a). Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TKR KSS AV. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: A common mechanism in the antennal lobe? It is cosmopolitan in nature and reported to occur in several countries (Tandon and Verghese, 1985). Performed the experiments: RMA. The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, 1912), is a member of the Tephritidae (fruit flies) family. The results showed inhibition of catalase activity and an increase of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities in the treated fruit (unpaired t test, t = 4.01, df = 4, P = 0.01 [CAT]; t = 5.76, df = 4, P = 0.004 [POD]; t = 11.30, df = 4, P = 0.0002 [PPO]). One unit of catalase converts 1μmol of H2O2 per minute. However, B. zonata, well known as a species infesting man-goes, was unexpectedly not detected from mango fruits in the survey. Additionally, the effect of SA is well studied in herbaceous plants, but, studies on the effect of SA on woody plants are meager. (paired t test, ovipunctures (0.5 mM: t = 7.59, df = 4, P = 0.002; 1.0 mM: t = 3.81, df = 4, P = 0.02; 2.0mM: t = 11.49, df = 4, P = 0.0003; 5mM: t = 6.89, df = 4, P = 0.002); eggs per puncture (0.5 mM: t = 5.15, df = 4, P = 0.01; 1.0 mM: t = 9.57, df = 4, P = 0.001; 2.0mM: t = 5.49, df = 4, P = 0.01; 5mM: t = 4.78, df = 4, P = 0.01). Adult flies feed on decaying fruit, plant nectar, and other substances during their lifetime and prefer to feed in the morning. Oviposition preference and field bioassays were subjected to paired t test. The number of adults emerged also showed a significant difference (t = 17.96, df = 6, P = 0.0001) between control and treated fruit (Fig 6b). However, the identity and nature of oviposition stimulants for B. dorsalis is not well known. Helium was used as carrier gas with the flow rate of 1 ml-min. Induction of defense related enzymes (PAL, PPO, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase etc) and subsequent induced resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Ralstonia solanacearum was noticed following chemical elicitors application viz., SA, benzothiadozole in Brassica juncea and Solanum melongena respectively [72]. Post hoc analyses employing Bonferroni correction revealed that the numbers of oviposition punctures and eggs per puncture were significantly less in SA treated fruit irrespective of post SA treatment time intervals [1 day (oviposition punctures: t = 3.78, P<0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 4.67, P <0.001), 2 days (oviposition punctures: t = 3.67, P <0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 2.86, P <0.05), 3 days (oviposition punctures: t = 4.50, P <0.01; eggs per puncture: t = 4.20, P <0.01)] (Fig 2a and 2b). Our sincere appreciation and thanks to Dr Charles Zaiontz for his valuable statistical support and guidance. Such induced responses in plants are important components of pest management and can be triggered by external application of elicitors [13]. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. For this bioassay, SA treated and untreated fruit were placed in plastic containers with sterilized sand. Error bars = Standard error of mean. 353–362 in Robinson A.S. and Hooper G. The pupal and adult emergence decreased in the SA treated fruit when compared to the control (unpaired t test, t = 11.93, df = 6, P = 0.0001 [pupae], t = 17.96, df = 6, P = 0.0001 [adults emerged]). Among the elicitors listed above, SA is well studied in non-woody plants for its role in regulating plant defense and in triggering ‘systemic acquired resistance’ (SAR) [14–19]. 2 0 obj Female … 12.4) is another key pest of mango (Tandon and Shukla, 1989). The area of the experimental plot was one hectare with a total number of 400 mango plants, at 5 m (between the plants) x 5 m (between the rows) spacing. All analyses were carried out using Graph Pad Prism software (Ver. Thus, females readily discriminate between oviposition sites of different quality to maximize larval survival and avoid competition from conspecifics for resources [4, 56–58]. B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mangoes in Senegal leads to production losses. 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