Rhodes, James Ford. Smith's militia fought off the Union attacks, and Hatch withdrew after suffering about 650 casualties, versus Smith's 50. Encountering Confederate troops led by General G.W. done with more spirit, or in better harmony of time and place. In the resulting Battle of Honey Hill, Hatch's men were forced to withdraw after several assaults against the Confederate entrenchments failed. The March attracted a huge number of refugees, to whom Sherman assigned land with his Special Field Orders No. The second objective of the campaign was more traditional. Maj. Gen. John G. Foster dispatched 5,500 men and 10 guns under Brig. A Christmas Present for President Lincoln, American Civil War: Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest, American Civil War: Major General George H. Thomas, American Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek. The march was made easier by able assistants such as Orlando Metcalfe Poe, chief of the bridge building and demolition team. General Grant arranged two campaigns for the year 1864. The Cavalry Corps of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, reinforced by a brigade under Brig. With the city secured, Sherman telegraphed President Abraham Lincoln with the message, "I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the City of Savannah, with one hundred and fifty guns and plenty of ammunition, also about twenty-five thousand bales of cotton." To regular foraging parties must be instructed the gathering of provisions and forage at any distance from the road traveled. Sherman's March to the Sea. In planning for the march, Sherman used livestock and crop production data from the 1860 census to lead his troops through areas where he believed they would be able to forage most effectively. On December 17, he sent a message to Hardee in the city: I have already received guns that can cast heavy and destructive shot as far as the heart of your city; also, I have for some days held and controlled every avenue by which the people and garrison of Savannah can be supplied, and I am therefore justified in demanding the surrender of the city of Savannah, and its dependent forts, and shall wait a reasonable time for your answer, before opening with heavy ordnance. It seized 5,000 horses, 4,000 mules, and 13,000 head of cattle. Hardee decided not to surrender but to escape. He has appeared on The History Channel as a featured expert. They often felt betrayed, as they "suffered along with their owners, complicating their decision of whether to flee with or from Union troops". Considering Sherman's military priorities, however, this tactical maneuver by his enemy to get out of his force's path was welcomed to the point of remarking, "If he will go to the Ohio River, I'll give him rations. Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smith's Georgia militia had about 3,050 soldiers, most of whom were boys and elderly men. Sherman recounted in his memoirs the scene when he left at 7 a.m. the following day: Hood had taken the bulk of forces in Georgia on his campaign to Tennessee in hopes of diverting Sherman to pursue him. Entrenched in a strong position, Hardee refused to surrender and remained determined to defend the city. Overnight, Union engineers constructed a bridge 2 miles (3.2 km) away from the bluff across the Oconee River, and 200 soldiers crossed to flank the Confederate position. On This Day: Union General Sherman’s scorched-earth March to the Sea campaign begins November 15, 2020 Grayman Share On This Day in History 0 On November 15, 1864, Union General William T. Sherman begins his expedition across Georgia by torching the industrial section of Atlanta and pulling away from his supply lines. On December 4, Kilpatrick's cavalry routed Wheeler's at the Battle of Waynesboro. NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER, 1864. Sherman's March to the Sea took place from November 15 to December 22, 1864, during the American Civil War. It confiscated 9.5 million pounds of corn and 10.5 million pounds of fodder, and destroyed uncounted cotton gins and mills. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sherman%27s_March_to_the_Sea&oldid=993929872, Campaigns of the Western Theater of the American Civil War, Military operations of the American Civil War in Georgia (U.S. state), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles needing additional references from December 2015, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. At the Battle of Honey Hill on November 30, Hatch fought a vigorous battle against G.W. "[24] David J. Eicher wrote that "Sherman had accomplished an amazing task. Gen. Kilpatrick's, killing one, wounding two and capturing 18. He devoted the next few weeks to chasing Confederate troops through northern Georgia in a vain attempt to lure them into a decisive fight. LC Civil War Maps (2nd ed. With his supply lines reopened, Sherman began making plans to lay siege to Savannah. With Ross McElwee, Dede McElwee, Ross McElwee Jr., Patricia Rendleman. Standard histories of Major General William T. Shermans celebrated March to the Sea invariably portray the Confederacys response as inconsequential. Welch, Robert Christopher. Finally realizing that Savannah was Sherman's target, Hardee began concentrating his men to defend the city, while ordering Major General Joseph Wheeler's cavalry to attack the Union flanks and rear. Despite these reinforcements, he seldom possessed more than 13,000 men. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood was threatening Sherman's supply line from Chattanooga, and Sherman detached two armies under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas to deal with Hood in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign. Arnold presented him with the key to the city, and Sherman's men, led by Geary's division of the XX Corps, occupied the city the same day. Unwilling to give in, Hardee escaped with his command over the Savannah River on December 20 using an improvised pontoon bridge. I suppose it will be safer if I leave General Grant and yourself to decide. Slightly more than 100 Union officers and men were killed and 430 were wounded. Other historical analysis however rejects the comparison. It was total war. "[14] On December 26, the president replied in a letter:[15]. How General Sherman's Fiery March to the Sea Broke the Confederacy Forever. Gen. Charles C. Walcutt arrived to stabilize the defense, and the division of Georgia militia launched several hours of badly coordinated attacks, eventually retreating with about 1,100 casualties (of which about 600 were prisoners), versus the Union's 100. Some of the 134 Union casualties were caused by torpedoes, a name for crude land mines that were used only rarely in the war. As Sherman advanced to the sea, Thomas' men destroyed Hood's army at the Battles of Franklin and Nashville. Fowler, John D. and David B. Parker, eds. [27] It was widely popular among US soldiers of 20th-century wars. These orders have been depicted in popular culture as the origin of the "40 acres and a mule" promise. Prime meridian: Washington. The 300-mile (480 km) march began on November 15. The March to the Sea for Floyd Legion started with a skirmish at Buckhead, just south of Madison, on Nov. 19, 1864, and ended in Savannah on Dec. 10, 1864. Known as "Sherman's March to the Sea," the campaign through Georgia effectively eliminated the region's economic usefulness to the Confederate cause. Geary telegraphed Sherman, who advised him to accept the offer. That very day an additional 500 were transferred to Savannah lowering the prison's population even further. It was led by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army. 120, regarding the conduct of the campaign. In all foraging, of whatever kind, the parties engaged will refrain from abusive or threatening language, and may, where the officer in command thinks proper, give written certificates of the facts, but no receipts, and they will endeavor to leave with each family a reasonable portion for their maintenance. This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 06:23. Please make my grateful acknowledgments to your whole army, officers and men. Smith on November 30, Hatch moved to attack. After a successful two-month campaign, Sherman accepted the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston and his forces in North Carolina on April 26, 1865. On December 20, he led his men across the Savannah River on a makeshift pontoon bridge. The purpose of Sherman’s March to the Sea was to frighten Georgia’s civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause. Jacqueline Campbell has written, on the other hand, that some slaves looked upon the Union army's ransacking and invasive actions with disdain. "[7] There were about 13,000 men remaining at Lovejoy's Station, south of Atlanta. He had defied military principles by operating deep within enemy territory and without lines of supply or communication. Sherman's March to the Sea refers to a long stretch of devastating Union army movements that took place during the United States Civil War. How Did Sherman's March End the Civil War? Poe oversaw the burning of Atlanta, for which action he was honored by Sherman. Poe directly supervised the destruction of all buildings and structures in Atlanta that could be of any military value to the Confederates once Sherman abandoned the city. [21] The Army wrecked 300 miles (480 km) of railroad and numerous bridges and miles of telegraph lines. The following morning, the mayor of Savannah formally surrendered the city to Sherman. Iowa State University thesis, 2011. Howard's wing, led by Kilpatrick's cavalry, marched south along the railroad to Lovejoy's Station, which caused the defenders there to conduct a fighting retreat to Macon. Directed by Ross McElwee. During the march, Sherman's forces would cut loose from their supply lines and would live off the land. Some band, by accident, struck up the anthem of "John Brown's Body"; the men caught up the strain, and never before or since have I heard the chorus of "Glory, glory, hallelujah!" by Warfare History Network. During the campaign, the Confederate War Department brought in additional men from Florida and the Carolinas, but they never were able to increase their effective force beyond 13,000.[8]. [20] A Confederate officer estimated that 10,000 liberated slaves followed Sherman's army, and hundreds died of "hunger, disease, or exposure" along the way. MEMOIRS OF GENERAL WILLIAM T. SHERMAN. General Sherman’s March to the Sea, also known as the Savannah Campaign, was conducted through Georgia from November 15 to December 21, 1864. As they approached Savannah, additional Union troops entered the fray as 5,500 men, under Brigadier General John P. Hatch, descended from Hilton Head, SC in an attempt to cut the Charleston & Savannah Railroad near Pocotaligo. One of the most infamous campaigns of the Civil War was William Tecumseh Sherman's march through Georgia to the Sea. By moving in Lee's rear, Sherman could possibly increase pressure on Lee, allowing Grant the opportunity to break through, or at least keep Southern reinforcements away from Virginia. Shermans March to the Sea . At the former, Kilpatrick was surprised and nearly captured. On December 17, he contacted Hardee with a warning that he would begin shelling the city if it were not surrendered. On November 25–26 at Sandersville, Wheeler struck at Slocum's advance guard. Sherman's decision to operate deep within enemy territory and without supply lines is considered to be one of the major campaigns of the war, and is considered by some historians to be an early example of modern total war. Sherman and Wilson met and discussed various operations in Sherman’s "March to the Sea" from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. On November 23, Slocum's troops captured the city and held a mock legislative session in the capitol building, jokingly voting Georgia back into the Union.[12]. Combustible materials then destroyed by controlled fires Ross McElwee, Ross McElwee Jr., Patricia Rendleman time! 2020, at 06:23 lure them into a decisive fight a vain attempt to them. Armies in Virginia continued in a strong position, Hardee refused to surrender and remained determined to defend city... About 3,050 soldiers, most of whom were boys and elderly men Hill on 22... 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